A few nights later, the Milton women who beat Ree come to her house and offer to take her to "[her] daddy's bones". The women place a sack on her head and drive her to a pond, where they row to the shallow area where her father's submerged body lies. They tell Ree to reach into the water and grasp her father's hands so they can cut them off with a chainsaw; the severed hands will serve as proof of death for the authorities. Ree takes the hands to the sheriff, telling him that someone flung them onto the porch of her house.
Anti-S. aureus antibody staining. (A) Antibody staining targeting S. aureus in a PJI patient iliac wing bone; (B) antibody staining targeting S. aureus in a femoral fracture patient acetabular bone. Download FIG S3, PDF file, 1.7 MB.
In summary, we have confirmed that S. aureus is capable of infecting human osteocytes both in in vitro cell cultures and in ex vivo-infected bone tissue. We also demonstrate the presence of S. aureus antigens in viable osteocytes present in regions of infected PJI patient bone. Our findings extend previous observations that undifferentiated osteoblasts can become infected by S. aureus (7) and that S. aureus can invade the lacuno-canalicular spaces of mouse cortical bone in an experimental infection model (13). Our in vitro and clinical findings demonstrate that osteocytes are capable of responding robustly to S. aureus invasion by producing immune mediators, consistent with previous findings with other nonprofessional antigen-presenting cell types, including osteoblasts (23). Some of the upregulated chemokines in this study, such as RANTES (24) and IP10 (25), were previously shown to have direct antimicrobial activity to clear extracellular bacteria. In our osteocyte-like cell model, whether the reduced live intracellular S. aureus cell number is associated with chemokine production, production of another mediator, or lysosomal digestion by the host cell or a combination of all three is an important question that needs to be addressed. This might potentially give rise to a novel therapeutic approach, stimulating osteocytes to clear the viable intracellular bacteria that are refractory to the effects of antibiotics. The bony location of the infected osteocyte may render them refractory to clearance by immune cells, and, as such, osteocytes may be an immune-privileged cell type. The osteocyte may therefore serve as a reservoir of bacteria for future reinfection, perhaps explaining the high prevalence of infections that become apparent only after long periods of time or recur following surgical/medical management.
We sincerely appreciate the willingness of all patients to participate in this study and the kind assistance of clinical staff from the Royal Adelaide Hospital with collection of the bone specimens. We thank Agatha Labrinidis from Adelaide Microscopy, the University of Adelaide, for assistance with microscopy imaging.
D.Y., A.R.W., and G.J.A. framed this study and designed experiments in detail. D.Y. and A.R.W. conducted the experiments and collected data. D.Y., A.R.W., and G.J.A. analyzed and interpreted data. L.B.S. directed the collection of clinical bone specimens and provided clinical insight into the study. S.M.P. performed bioinformatics analysis. S.P.K. provided guidance for the microbiological aspects of the study. D.M.F. provided scientific insight.
The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate. Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays.
Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue (muscle, fat, and organs) allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black.
An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or bone bruises (also called bone contusions or microfractures) not visible on x-ray images.
Have you ever hit the inside of your elbow in just the right spot and felt a tingling or prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as it feels weird. The "funny bone" got its nickname because of that funny feeling you get after you hit it.
But your funny bone isn't actually a bone at all. Running down the inside part of your elbow is a nerve called the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve lets your brain know about feelings in your fourth and fifth fingers. It's also one of the nerves that controls some movement of your hand.
You get that funny feeling when the ulnar nerve is bumped against the humerus (say: HYOO-muh-rus), the long bone that starts at your elbow and goes up to your shoulder. Tapping your funny bone doesn't do any damage to your elbow, arm, or ulnar nerve. But it sure feels strange!
People sometimes mention the funny bone when they talk about their sense of humor. Maybe you've heard someone say that something "really tickled my funny bone." We'll leave you with a joke and hope that it tickles yours:
For some scenes in the film, which shows Ellen getting gradually sicker with a bruised spine (the result of obsessive crunches), sunken cheeks, furry arm hair (the body's way of keeping a too-thin body warm) and concave belly, Collins relied on special effects. "Makeup, in general, is amazing," she says, citing a baggy wardrobe, collarbone and cheekbone prosthetics and plenty of lighting and shading tricks to make her look increasingly bony.
There are three plans, though pricing differs from region to region. First up is the Basic plan, which allows you to watch on one device at a time. Upgrading to the Standard plan allows you to watch shows and movies, and download them for offline viewing, on up to 2 different devices at a time. The top-tier Premium plan lets you watch and download on up to 4 different devices, and comes with the options to watch videos in HD and Ultra HD.
* You can't download movies or TV shows to Apple TV, smart TVs, or streaming devices. You can download HDR content only to certain iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch models. You can't download 4K video content to any device.
In marker-based XROMM, three or more radio-opaque markers are surgically implanted into the bones of interest. The 3D movements of the radio-opaque markers are tracked in biplanar x-ray movies, and then the XYZ coordinates of the marker sets are used to calculate the rigid body motions of each bone. These rigid body transformations are then applied to 3D models of the bones to reconstruct the 3D movements of 3D bones in an animation environment (such as Maya).
Bone movement data from x-ray video and shape data from bone scans can also be combined without implanted markers. The 3D pose of the bones is recovered from the biplanar videos either manually (by hand and by eye) or with autoregistration software. Scientific Rotoscoping is one type of markerless XROMM analysis, in which multi-bone, articulated models are manually aligned to x-ray video and standard (visible light spectrum) video of animal movement (Gatesy and Alenghat, 1999; Gatesy et al., 2010). More automated methods for aligning (registering) markerless bone models to biplanar x-ray movies are also emerging (Bey et al., 2008; Bey et al., 2006; You et al., 2001), with great promise for increasing the throughput of markerless XROMM analysis. These methods for markerless autoregistration build on previous work registering the movement of knee replacement devices in human patients to single plane x-ray movies (Banks and Hodge, 1996; Zuffi et al., 1999).
Papaioannou, G., C. Mitrogiannis, G. Nianios, and G. Fiedler. (2009). Assessing residual bone-stump-skin-socket interface kinematics of above knee amputees with high accuracy biplane dynamic roentgen stereogrammetric analysis. 55th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society 2009, Paper No. 346.
For an introduction to these benefits, read our fact sheet, 'About exercise for osteoporosis and bone health'. It can help you think about how the benefits apply to you, and whether you should prioritise any single one.
Remember, any exercise you do for your bone health should be in addition to the exercise you do for your general health. And don't forget to warm up before you start, and cool down properly afterwards.
The secret to Foley lies in everyday, household items. Snapping celery stalks sounds eerily similar to the sound of bones breaking; hitting coconuts together really does sound like a horse walking (thank you, Monty Python).
Gregg Barbanell, the Foley artist on The Walking Dead, crushes walnuts to create the sound of crushing skulls. Of course, when the situation calls for regular bone-breaking sounds, he just sticks to celery. Foley can be a very gory business. 2b1af7f3a8