Even the most experienced instructor can find teaching cell biology daunting, and most cell biology texts are bogged down in detail or background information. Lost in all the details are the more fascinating material and contemporary advances that represent this rapidly moving field. With so much to cover, creating a classroom around active learning may be difficult or nearly impossible. Cooper 8e endeavors to address those issues with succinct writing, incorporation of current research, a test bank that encourages critical thinking, and an active learning framework. With just enough detail for a one-semester, sophomore/junior level course, the Cooper 8e text presents fundamental concepts and current research, including chapters on Genomics and Transcriptional Regulation and Epigenetics, and new in-text boxed features on Molecular Medicine and Key Experiments. Instructors will appreciate updates to the 8e test bank, such as raising the Bloom's level of questions overall, and giving instructors the ability to select questions based on level. Finally, for instructors who want to flip their classrooms or just get students more engaged, Cooper 8e is the only cell biology text that is accompanied by an Active Learning Guide. This chapter-by-chapter playbook shows instructors how to create a dynamic learning environment with in-class exercises, clicker questions, and links to relevant media, animations, testing, and self-quizzing, all aligned with the new in-text learning objectives, wherever appropriate. Cooper 8e provides the right level of detail, student engagement, and instructor support for the modern cell biology classroom.
Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.
In this review we will address the current data about bone cells biology, bone matrix, and the factors that influence the bone remodeling process. Moreover, we will briefly discuss the role of estrogen on bone tissue under physiological and pathological conditions.
The knowledge of the structural, molecular, and functional biology of bone is essential for the better comprehension of this tissue as a multicellular unit and a dynamic structure that can also act as an endocrine tissue, a function still poorly understood. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that bone cells respond to different factors and molecules, contributing to the better understanding of bone cells plasticity. Additionally, bone matrix integrins-dependent bone cells interactions are essential for bone formation and resorption. Studies have addressed the importance of the lacunocanalicular system and the pericellular fluid, by which osteocytes act as mechanosensors, for the adaptation of bone to mechanical forces. Hormones, cytokines, and factors that regulate bone cells activity, such as sclerostin, ephrinB2, and semaphoring, have played a significant role in the bone histophysiology under normal and pathological conditions. Thus, such deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of bone tissue will certainly help to manage new therapeutic approaches to bone diseases.
The name David Cooper has, over the past three decades, become synonymous with HIV research and treatment in Australia. Throughout his career, he was consistently at the forefront of clinical and immunological research into the virus; his inquisitiveness coupled with his compassion for his fellow person were traits that he possessed from a very young age. Born in Sydney in 1949, Cooper finished high school aged 15 and immediately commenced medical studies at the University of Sydney against advice to have a year or two off. He graduated as a doctor in 1972, with first class honours and a couple of research publications. By 1980 he had obtained fellowships in internal medicine and pathology, qualifying him as an immunologist, and had completed his Doctoral degree in human B cell biology.
The Cell: A Molecular Approach is the only one-semester introduction to cell biology text built around learning objectives, and the only text to incorporate in-text and online data analysis problems.
Geoffrey M. Cooper is Professor Emeritus of Biology at Boston University. Receiving a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Miami in 1973, he pursued postdoctoral work with Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin, where he developed gene transfer assays to characterize the proviral DNAs of Rous sarcoma virus and related retroviruses. He then joined the faculty of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School in 1975, where he pioneered the discovery of oncogenes in human cancers. Since moving to Boston University in 1998,he has served as Chair of Biology and Associate Dean of the Faculty for Natural Sciences, as well as teaching undergraduate cell biology and continuing his research on the roles of oncogenes in the signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation and programmed cell death. He has authored over 100 research papers, two textbooks on cancer and an award-winning novel, The Prize, dealing with fraud in medical research.
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Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly).
The majority of creatine in the human body is in two forms, either the phosphorylated form making up 60% of the stores or in the free form which makes up 40% of the stores. The average 70 kg young male has a creatine pool of around 120-140 g which varies between individuals [10, 11] depending on the skeletal muscle fiber type  and quantity of muscle mass . The endogenous production and dietary intake matches the rate of creatinine production from the degradation of phosphocreatine and creatine at 2.6% and 1.1%/d respectively. In general, oral creatine supplementation leads to an increase of creatine levels within the body. Creatine can be cleared from the blood by saturation into various organs and cells or by renal filtration .
Cooke et al  observed positive effects of a prior (0.3 g/d kg BW) loading and a post maintenance protocol (0.1 g/d kg BW) to attenuate the loss of strength and muscle damage after an acute supramaximal (3 set x 10 rep with 120% 1RM) eccentric resistance training session in young males. The authors speculate that creatine ingestion prior to exercise may enhance calcium buffering capacity of the muscle and reduce calcium-activated proteases which in turn minimize sarcolemma and further influxes of calcium into the muscle. In addition creatine ingestion post exercise would enhance regenerative responses, favoring a more anabolic environment to avoid severe muscle damage and improve the recovery process. In addition, in vitro studies have demonstrated the antioxidant effects of creatine to remove superoxide anion radicals and peroxinitrite radicals . This antioxidant effect of creatine has been associated with the presence of Arginine in its molecule. Arginine is also a substrate for nitric oxide synthesis and can increase the production of nitric oxide which has higher vasodilatation properties, and acts as a free radical that modulates metabolism, contractibility and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Other amino acids contained in the creatine molecule such as glycine and methinine may be especially susceptible to free radical oxidation because of sulfhydryl groups . A more recent in vitro study showed that creatine exerts direct antioxidant activity via a scavenging mechanism in oxidatively injured cultured mammalian cells . In a recent in vivo study Rhaini et al  showed a positive effect of 7 days of creatine supplementation (4 x 5 g CM 20 g total) on 27 recreational resistance trained males to attenuate the oxidation of DNA and lipid peroxidation after a strenuous resistance training protocol. 2b1af7f3a8