The advancement of nanotechnology produces numerous DNA amplification methods and technologies, incorporating polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction endonuclease digestion, aldehyde method, ligase detection reaction (LDR), cycling probe reaction (CPR), ligase chain reaction (LCR), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and single-molecule detection. With increasing temperature, DNA double-strand configuration gradually transforms from the ordered tubular to the liquid-crystalline characteristics, thus the shape of the DNA molecule changes from blunt-ended and rod-like to tailed cone-like and rod-like, respectively. The formation of the DNA helix by GC-rich sequences was found to be suppressed in the presence of Mg2+ . Thus, the appropriate amount of free magnesium is essential to achieve sufficient bioactivity and DNA amplification under different conditions in vitro. The appropriate magnesium concentration should be chosen based on different specialty grades of magnesium chloride added to the amplification reaction. Magnesium chloride should be adjusted in a way that it is consistently present between the protein and the dNTP .
Enzymes have been used for many centuries for various biotechnological and biosynthetic purposes. Lysosomes are the primary degrades of biological cells, responsible for degrading unwanted material such as proteins, toxins, and unbroken cells. In most organisms, they are called autophagasomes and are grouped into the cells. Lysosomes are generally located peripherally outside of the nucleus, whereas the internal cytosol within a cell acts as the main storage and transportation compartment for various biomolecules. Some cells require lysosomal exposure to cytoplasmic material for modification; other cells need to protect the intracellular compartment from the external environment (Fig. 8). The function of lysosomes can be affected by various pathogenic conditions (e.g., inflammation and cancer), resulting in cellular accumulation of inappropriate cellular material (e.g., proteins and lipids). Lysosomes remain in the cytoplasm of most cell types and therefore can easily be accessed for therapeutic purposes. The function of lysosomes can be affected by various pathogenic conditions, resulting in cellular accumulation of inappropriate cellular material (e.g., proteins and lipids). 7211a4ac4a